Après ses études secondaires, elle entre à l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique[3],[4],[5], obtenant en 1969 le Bachelor of Arts (licence) et le Bachelor in Social Sciences (licence en sciences politiques), et poursuivit des études en vue d'un doctorat sur le système de la gouvernance soviétique à la London School of Economics[6],[7]. En 1996, le gouvernement libéral la nomme au poste de consul général canadien à Los Angeles. Auparavant, elle a été ministre d'État aux Affaires indiennes et du Nord canadien, ministre de la Justice et procureure générale et ministre de la Défense nationale et ministre des Anciens Combattants. Traductions en contexte de "kim campbell" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : The Right Honourable Kim Campbell served our country with great distinction. Frizzell, Pammett, & Westell 2. The NDP was also indirectly hampered by the nationwide collapse of the PC vote. The NDP recovered somewhat, regaining official party status in 1997. These positions gained the NDP little headway in Quebec and hurt the party's standing as the traditional voice of Western protest. Pendant un certain temps, elle paraît être en mesure de réparer la réputation du Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada, sérieusement compromise par une suite de scandales et de mesures impopulaires pendant le mandat du premier ministre Mulroney. Elle est première ministre du Canada du 25 juin au 4 novembre 1993, première femme à accéder à la fonction. Parce qu'elle n'aimait pas ses prénoms (Avril Phædra Douglas), elle adopta celui de Kim pendant son adolescence[2]. The most important issue of the 1993 election was the economy. Parties that nominated 50 candidates qualified as official parties and, most importantly, received government subsidies for advertising. Susan Campbell - "KIM". Elle demeure en fonction comme maître de conférence en politique publique à la Kennedy School of Government de l'université Harvard[18], et fait partie de plusieurs conseils d'administration de sociétés de haute technologie et de biotechnologie. Nationally, frustration with the PC party was also so high that some traditional NDP voters moved to the Liberals as a strategic vote. The Bloc and Reform had spent little during the campaign, and also received more support once their prominent position in parliament was made clear. In one stroke, Reform had replaced the Progressive Conservatives as the major right-wing party in Canada (despite being virtually nonexistent east of Manitoba) and supplanted the NDP as the voice of Western discontent. Campbell is the first and only woman to hold the position.. Campbell was also the first baby boomer to hold the office, and the only prime minister born in British Columbia. Independent Ward 5 candidate Susan Campbell standing for by election on the 21st of August 2019. In the West, the Liberals dominated Manitoba, winning all but two seats. Fourteen parties competed for the 295 seats in the House at that time. However, it formed its first government, a minority, in early 2006 with Harper as prime minister, just over two years after the merger. In contrast, Barrett raised the issue of Western alienation and strongly opposed the Accord. These voters largely moved to the Bloc, with 14% of NDP voters supporting the Bloc in 1993. She was decisively defeated by Jean Chrétien and the Liberals, reduced to two seats in the House of Commons, the worst defeat of a federal government in Canadian history. Manning, who did not speak French, read prepared opening and closing remarks, but did not participate in the debate itself. Former Prime Minister Kim Campbell speaks to CBC's Heather Hiscox about Trumps victory, Clinton's loss and the future of women in politics. The five parties were reduced to four when the PC Party and Canadian Alliance (successor to the Reform Party) merged in 2003. 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When she assumed office in June, the party was deeply unpopular, and was further weakened by the emergence of new parties that were competing for its core supporters. Elle tient ce poste jusqu'en 2000[15]. The 1993 Progressive Conservative leadership election was held on June 13, 1993, to choose a leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. The Liberals retained the majority of the province's ridings, despite being defeated in 2006, finally relinquishing their lead in 2008. For a complete list of MPs elected in the 1993 election, see 35th Canadian parliament. It was the worst defeat, both in absolute terms and in terms of percentage of seats lost, for a governing party at the federal level in Canada, and among the worst ever suffered for a governing party in a Westminster system. The Reform Party became the Official Opposition in the 1997 election. The election date was set for October 25. In a deviation from their traditional position as staunch federalists, the NDP chose to align itself with the Liberals and PCs on the "yes" side of the 1992 Charlottetown Accord. The Bloc Québécois failed to propel the sovereigntist side to victory in the 1995 Quebec referendum and lost Official Opposition status in the 1997 election. Many Western voters had never forgiven the Liberals for the National Energy Program in the 1980s, and Mulroney's attempt to pacify Quebec caused them to rethink their support for the Tories. In some provinces it was Harmonized with the Provincial sales tax, while in other provinces the GST and the Provincial Sales Tax remained separate. The New Democratic Party (NDP) had won a record 43 seats in 1988 under Ed Broadbent, who retired the next year. Reform's heavy concentration of Western support netted it 52 seats. While John Turner and the Liberal leadership supported the Meech Lake Accord, there was significant internal disagreement, with Trudeau returning from retirement to speak out against it. L'élection fédérale canadienne de 1993[14] est annoncée pour l'automne. Elle fait l'observation fameuse qu'« une élection n'est pas le moment pour discuter des affaires sérieuses. Le parti s'attend, soit à conserver le pouvoir, soit à former l'opposition officielle. The party as a whole was left deeply in debt, and came up ten seats short of official party status in the Commons. The new party, led by Harper, was able to reduce the Liberals to a minority government in 2004 by capitalizing on the sponsorship scandal, though it was not able to reach the combined totals of the Tories and Alliance in 2000. Some Reformers had been annoyed that the moderate former Liberal and Ottawa insider had been made campaign manager, but he quickly proved highly able. From 2003 until her judicial election in 2012, she ran her own firm, Kimberly A. Campbell, P.A., and worked for the Law Offices of Thomas Donnelly. Despite the brief comeback of Joe Clark as leader in 1998, they were reduced to 12 seats mostly in the Atlantic provinces and Quebec, winning only two seats outside this region in the next two elections. If the candidate did not win 15% of the vote, which none of the minor parties did, these deposits would be forfeit. The Bloc relied almost solely on individual donations, as its party charter barred donations from corporations. The NDP found itself deeply in debt, but recouped some of it by selling their Ottawa headquarters to the new Ukrainian Embassy. ». 291 likes. Former Prime Minister Kim Campbell on federal election results – Nov 18, 2019 She said the next Conservative leader needs to be brave and bring people together to … 351 likes. The 1993 Canadian federal election (officially, the 35th general election) was held on October 25 of that year to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 35th Parliament of Canada. Despite being led by a Quebecker, the Liberals were unable to recover their dominant position in Quebec. Kim Campbell est nommée à la tête de ce groupe visant à élaborer la courte liste qui sera soumise au bureau du premier ministre[19],[20],[21]. In the 2015 election, the Bloc managed to increase their seat count to 10, 2 seats short of regaining official party status. In December 1993, Kim Campbell resigned as Conservative leader and was replaced by Charest, the only surviving member of the previous Cabinet. Both provinces constitute nearly two-thirds of the Canadian population. Chrétien's approval ratings shot up, nullifying the only advantage the Progressive Conservatives still had over him. Previously she was minister for Indian Affairs and Northern Development as well as justice minister and attorney general. She became Canada's first female prime minister on June 25, 1993. The leaders debates were held October 3 and 4, and were generally regarded as inconclusive, with no party gaining a boost from them. The party ran 171 candidates, and for a time polling indicated it could potentially have an impact. However, the Bloc's concentration of support in Quebec was slightly larger, leaving Reform three seats short of making Manning Leader of the Opposition. 80% of Canadians disapproved of the GST in a June 1993 poll. Forsythe, R., M. Frank, V. Krishnamurthy and T.W. The election was called on September 8, 1993, by the new Progressive Conservative Party leader, Prime Minister Kim Campbell, near the end of her party's five-year mandate. The 1993 election is considered a political realignment election with lasting effects on Canadian politics. The NDP (and its predecessor, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation) had been the traditional Western protest party for most of the last 40 years, but since the 1990s, they had attempted to make inroads in Quebec, and had joined the Progressive Conservatives and Liberals in supporting the Charlottetown Accord. However, this support was spread out across the country. The Conservatives, despite cutting back on spending late in the campaign, were some $7.5 million in debt by the end of the election, and it took years to clear this burden. However, the party failed to make a significant impression and imploded due to internal party turmoil. Elle fut aussi la deuxième femme, après la Première ministre britannique Margaret Thatcher, à prendre place à la table des chefs d'État ou de gouvernement du Groupe des sept (économie) lors de leur réunion en 1993. Ellis, Faron and Keith Archer. Their popular vote plunged from 43% to 16%, losing more than half their vote from 1988. Polling found that a considerable number of potential Liberal voters held negative opinions about Chrétien. The Reform Party won nearly as many seats and replaced the PCs as the major right-wing party in the Commons, although it won only one seat east of Manitoba. All opposition parties pledged to repeal the Goods and Services Tax. Richard Mackie "Voters Find Uncommon Views on the Fringe. avant le déclenchement de l’élection, Kim Campbell n’aura dirigé le gouvernement qu’un peu plus de quatre mois. This election was also the last time that the Social Credit Party attempted to run candidates in an election. "without a doubt" the most important issue. Le fonds couvre une période allant de 1916 à 2004. While McLaughlin made efforts to make inroads in Quebec, this proved fruitless and likely contributed to Western discontent. Chrétien's reputation in his home province never recovered, especially when the Bloc Québécois rallied on the issue. However, the party failed to nominate the minimum 50 candidates and was deregistered by Elections Canada. The party had been in headlong decline since losing its last Member of Parliament in 1980, and was now led by fundamentalist Christian preacher Ken Campbell. However, during the campaign, Campbell repeatedly made statements that caused problems for the party. In addition, what remained of the initial euphoria over Campbell quickly wore off as the campaign progressed. The greatest difference from 1988 was the rise of two new parties that cut into the Progressive Conservatives' support and caused Mulroney's "grand coalition" to implode. This election, like all previous Canadian elections, was conducted under a single-member plurality (or first past the post) system in which the country was carved into 295 electoral districts, or ridings, with each one electing one representative to the House of Commons. En 1972, elle épouse le professeur de mathématiques Nathan Divinsky (en)[22], le couple divorce en 1983. The Reform Party relied almost wholly on individual donations, with only some 12% coming from corporations. The most memorable moment involved Lucien Bouchard continuously questioning Campbell about the real deficit in the 1993 budget, and Campbell dodging the question. But I accepted that because God gave me other qualities and I'm grateful." Defeated Ontario MP Steven Langdon had called upon Rae to resign, having spent the 1993 election campaign disassociating himself from the provincial NDP's measures. Even though it was obvious by October that Chrétien would be the next prime minister, the memory of vote splitting in 1988 (a major factor in the Conservative win that year) still resonated with many NDP sympathizers. In addition, Duceppe failed to win his old riding back from the NDP incumbent and resigned as leader once again. [3] It remains the NDP's worst result in a federal election since its formation and the only election where the party polled fewer than one million votes. In 1989, while running for the federal NDP leadership, former British Columbia Premier Dave Barrett argued that the party should be concerned with Western alienation rather than focusing its attention on Quebec. Mulroney's government was based on a "grand coalition" of socially conservative populists from the West, fiscal conservatives from Atlantic Canada and Ontario, and Quebec nationalists. Though the Bloc was the Official Opposition, the Liberals reckoned Reform as their main opposition on all other issues that were not specific to Quebec. Kim Kardashian and Kanye West Had ‘Big Fight’ in December: ‘She Was Really Upset’ More News Jessica Campbell in ‘Election’. In 2006, the Conservatives became the Government, the Liberals relegated to official opposition, while the NDP and Bloc retained a significant opposition presence. Chrétien promised not to reopen the constitution, and that under the Liberals any change would be incremental in nature. When in office, the Liberals signed on to NAFTA with little opposition. This area is very socially conservative—in some cases, almost as socially conservative as rural Western Canada. The election saw three minor parties focused on radical reform to the monetary system: the Canada Party, the Abolitionist Party, and the Party for the Commonwealth of Canada, which was formed by supporters of U.S. fringe politician Lyndon LaRouche.[25]. The NDP had by far the most donors, with over 65,000, but the average donation was only $80. Their support plummeted into the teens, all but assuring that the Liberals would win a majority government. In the case of the Charlottetown Accord, the majority of Canada's population voted against an agreement endorsed by every First Minister and most other political groups. As Conservative support collapsed over the next four years, Reform party support increased. [20] The nation was mired in the Early 1990s recession, and unemployment was especially high. Reform also won four seats in Saskatchewan and one seat in Manitoba. Reform's appeal to populist policies such as calling for a democratically elected and regionally equal Senate as well as supporting the use of more plebiscites and referenda in the political process was very popular in Western Canada. Small "c" conservatives in the West and Ontario who traditionally supported of the Progressive Conservatives were drawn to Reform for several reasons. [12] Support for the Progressive Conservative Party had also increased after Campbell won the leadership, and they were only a few points behind the Liberals, while Reform had been reduced to single digits. When Brian Mulroney announced his resignation in 1993, she put her name in, and won ? Reform's appeal for smaller government, lower taxes, support of the North American Free Trade Agreement, opposition to the Goods and Services Tax, and social conservative policies won over many conservatives in the West and Ontario. The party then selected veteran politician Jean Chrétien over Paul Martin as party leader after a divisive battle, but Chrétien was unpopular, especially in his native Quebec, after declaring his opposition to the Meech Lake Accord, being rocked by caucus defections. Due to the first past the post system, which awards power solely on the basis of seats won, the Tories support was not concentrated in enough areas to translate into seats. Elle est élue en 1986 à l'Assemblée législative de la Colombie-Britannique, députée créditiste[9] ; elle fait ensuite campagne sans succès pour devenir la leader de ce parti. After winning only one seat in Quebec (out of 75) in 1980, the Tories won 58 seats in 1984, leaving the Liberals with almost no seats outside of Montreal. Not only did Canada win several points at the three-day G-7 summit, but its new prime minister won praise from her counterparts. These factors combined to make Mulroney the least popular leader since opinion polling began in the 1940s. Campbell then lost office in the largest landslide defeat in Canadian history. They lost all but two of the 156 seats they held when Parliament was dissolved—far surpassing the Liberals' 95-seat loss in 1984. When the PCs had formed the government in 1984, the federal deficit was at an unprecedented $34.5 billion, and had grown over $40 billion by 1993, despite pledges to reduce it. [16], Reform found itself embroiled in controversy when Toronto-area candidate John Beck made a series of anti-immigrant remarks in an interview with Excalibur, the York University student paper. Elle se lance dans la course pour succéder à Brian Mulroney[10],[11] à la direction progressiste-conservatrice, et de ce fait, au poste de première ministre, après la démission de Mulroney en 1993. Several years of effort had gone into the creation of the document, which was unprecedented for a Canadian party. Other minor parties included the Green Party of Canada which ran 79 candidates, Libertarian Party of Canada, the Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada and the Christian Heritage Party, which was mainly dedicated to opposing abortion. However, Barrett was defeated at the convention by Audrey McLaughlin, and his platform was not adopted by the party. Also, in 1995 when Bloc leader Lucien Bouchard's position as Opposition Leader granted him a meeting with visiting U.S. President Bill Clinton, Manning was also given a meeting with Clinton in order to defuse Bouchard's separatist leverage.[29]. The Liberals held a substantial advantage in funding for the next two elections as they enjoyed the majority of corporate campaign contributions after the collapse of the Progressive Conservatives. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "Kim Campbell government" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. Over the next five years, the popularity of Mulroney and his party collapsed. Her tenure as prime minister was brief, lasting only until November 1993. The Reform Party of Canada was a Western-based populist party led by Preston Manning, the son of former Alberta Premier Ernest Manning. The Liberals dominated Canadian politics for the next decade, retaining almost all of its Ontario ridings while making steady gains in Quebec. Some political scientists felt that the new five-party parliament was an example of a multi-party system. These conservative voters were disenchanted with the PCs for imposing the Goods and Services Tax, and the PC government's failure to reduce Canada's growing deficit and national debt. There was also the PC government's failure to deliver a democratically elected Senate as it had promised (while appointing unelected Senators in 1990), the PC party's socially progressive policies, and due to the PC government's overarching focus and failed attempts to officially bring Quebec into the Constitution while being seen by some as ignoring the concerns of other regions, especially the west. Prior to the controversy, the Campbell Tories were already beset by many problems; notably the recession, the unpopular GST, and their support bases moving to Reform and the Bloc. The Bloc's results were considered very impressive since the party had only been formed three years before, and because there were lingering questions about its viability. Until 2003 when Jean Chrétien passed Bill C-24, which banned business donations and provided a subsidy to each party based on their popular vote, the Liberals did not see the need to develop a system of extensive grassroots fundraising like the other parties. Ontario replaced Quebec (see below) as the main bastion of Liberal support for the next two decades; the party easily won a majority of the province's seats in the next four elections. Kim Cambell est la fille de Phyllis "Lissa" Margaret (née Cook; 1923–2013) et de George Thomas Campbell (1920–2002)[1]. Kim Campbell was prime minister for just a few months. Instead the GST remained. The Reform Party called for a "Zero in Three" plan that would reduce the deficit to zero in three years. This was the best showing by a third party since the 1921 election, when the Progressive Party won 60 seats. En 1986, elle épouse l'avocat Howard Eddy, le couple divorce en 1993[23],[2],[24]. Le monde politique canadien est donc complètement bouleversé par le résultat des élections : le 25 octobre 1993, les libéraux gagnent une majorité massive, tandis que les conservateurs tombent de la plus grosse majorité en sièges jamais obtenue au Parlement jusqu'à un caucus de deux, la pire défaite de l'histoire parlementaire canadienne. [7] With polls showing him facing almost certain defeat in the next election, Mulroney announced his retirement from politics in February 1993. "The NDP's Quest for Survival. This party quickly gained the support of Quebec sovereigntists and access to the networks of the provincial Parti Québécois. Elle jouit d'abord d'une grande popularité, due au fait d'être la première femme à atteindre un tel poste. Le comble des malheurs est une publicité conservatrice largement perçue comme se moquant de la paralysie faciale dont souffre le chef libéral Jean Chrétien. The CCF became the NDP in 1961 by which time it had clearly established itself as the nation's third major party. Campbell reprend le professorat en science politique pendant quelques années, cette fois à l'université Harvard. The only other Progressive Conservative besides Charest to win a Commons seat was Elsie Wayne, the popular mayor of Saint John, New Brunswick. Gilles Duceppe lost his own riding of Laurier—Sainte-Marie to the NDP candidate, and subsequently retired from federal politics, returning in June 2015. The Bloc and Reform both spent less than $2 million on their national campaigns. Polls between elections showed their support was steady at 9% but, fell dramatically during the campaign to an exploding NDP. Most of those seats would remain in Bloc hands for two decades, until nearly all of them were lost to the NDP at an election in which the Bloc was cut down to only four seats. ", Whitehorn, Alan. Campbell défait Jean Charest au congrès du Parti progressiste-conservateur en juin et elle devient la première femme à être première ministre du Canada[12],[13]. Many considered the Reform Party the de facto opposition on issues that did not pertain to Quebec and national unity. The Liberals also promised cuts, focusing on the unpopular and expensive plan to buy new military helicopters to replace the aging Sea Kings. The National Party did not attend. The Liberals swept Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, with only Wayne's win in New Brunswick denying them a clean sweep of Atlantic Canada. Susan Campbell - "KIM". It ran 231 candidates, more than some major parties. Mulroney's "grand coalition" completely fell apart. The Meech Lake Accord collapsed in 1990 when the provincial legislatures of Newfoundland and Manitoba adjourned without bringing the issue to a vote; all 10 provincial legislatures had to ratify the accord for it to become law. The first two women to lead a political party in a federal election. None of these parties came close to winning power and of those parties, the CCF was the only one that achieved long-term success. La première ministre paraît avoir des difficultés à s'entretenir avec les Canadiens « ordinaires » ; on l'accuse d'un ton supérieur et prétentieux. Or la popularité de Campbell se détériore rapidement. The Right Honourable Kim Campbell P.C. Reform did manage to take Simcoe Centre—their only victory east of Manitoba, ever—but even this win came by a wafer-thin 123-vote margin over the Liberals. The election was called on September 8, 1993, by the new Progressive Conservative Party leader, Prime Minister Kim Campbell, near the end of her party's five-year mandate. The Reform Party developed an extensive grassroots network in much of the West and Ontario. Furthermore, most newspapers and magazines had used similar photos that highlighted Chrétien's facial deformity.[19]. The election was a debacle for the Tories. [6] The Progressive Conservative Party's popularity reached a low of just over 15% in 1991. This stinging rebuke against the "political class" in Canada was a preview of things to come, as the upcoming election would be held on October 25, 1993, a year less a day after the Charlottetown referendum. Goods and Services Tax donation was only $ 80 the issue of the century be in... That same year, the environmentalist, anti-abortion, and Ross 337 `` voters Find Views... '' completely fell apart such pledges, an increase from $ 200 the! 2004-2006, a reporter shortened the quote to `` an election shortly after assuming office PC party and the Conservative... Same year, the NDP found itself deeply in debt, but put limits. Liberals opposed NAFTA and promised to try to renegotiate the FTA, but put few on. Edited on 8 January 2021, at one point leading in the 1993 budget, and came up seats! 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